The legacy and implications of the body-mind-spirit osteopathic tenet: A discussion paper evaluating its clinical relevance in contemporary osteopathic care

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Authors: Rafael Zegarra-Parodi Jorge E. Esteves Christian Lunghi Francesca Baroni Jerry Draper-Rodi Francesco Cerritelli
Journal: International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine


A current osteopathic tenet inherited from Native American principles involves viewing each person as a dynamic interaction of body-mind-spirit (BMS). Because of its traditional medicine heritage and current evidence-based approach, the osteopathic profession is, arguably, uniquely positioned to promote evidence-informed person-centered approaches that transcend improvements in pain and musculoskeletal function. It may be particularly relevant in the context of integrating the BMS tenet into osteopathic care according to the diversity of patients’ values and sociocultural assumptions towards health, symptoms, and subsequent care, which range from the typical Western to complementary and alternative medicine perspectives. There is currently a lack of robust clinical practice frameworks in this area, confusing patients and practitioners and blurring professional identities. The current commentary provides an opportunity to initiate discussions in the profession with a rationale for creating a roadmap to develop an evidence-informed framework for osteopathic care that integrates the BMS tenet.

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